Housing Management is very important in poultry Farming business in Nigeria as it counts in farming healthy birds.
Welcome to Farmers Guide, home for quality information on farming, both crops and livestocks.
You can also read about
Animals feed production
Dog Farming: Best way to breed and take care of Dogs
Chickens are reared for different purposes, some are reared
for meat only e.g. broilers, cockerel; some are reared for eggs
production e.g. layers, harco; while some are reared for both
purposes e.g. parent stock broilers.
BREEDS OF CHICKENS FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES
Chicken are classified into three for commercial purposes:
They are specifically reared for meat production,
they attain table size at 8 weeks but when boosted can attain
table size at 6 weeks, they are usually called “table birds”.
These group of birds are kept solely for egg
production, they start laying eggs from 18 – 2- weeks old, to
attain maximum results in egg production, attention must be
given to the quality of feed given to them.
This group of birds are basically reared for meat
Noiler chickens are hybrid products of chicken developed from broilers and cockerels. Hence, they develop a lot of meat like broiler chickens and are very resistant to adverse conditions like cockerels and are able to withstand most common poultry diseases.
Hence the characteristics of broilers and Cockerel were combined in one bird to get a better breed of chicken
SECRETS OF SUCCESS IN POULTRY FARMING BUSINESS
By producing your own feed especially after brooding the birds, ensure you have the right feed formulation.
Large scale Farming
Poultry favours people who do it in large scale more than those doing in small scale, eg are you aware that the quantity of feed that will feed 200 chickens can also feed 250 chickens and get the same result, now the person who reared 250 makes profit than the person who reared 200 not minding the spent the same amount of money
No wonder large poultry farms keep growing while the small ones keep closing down, a neighbor of mine started with 50 broilers she has not been able to bring another bcos she lost so much money.
If you fail to brood your chicks within the first ten days of their arrival, it will affect them through out their lives, that is why it’s risky starting with “brood and sell” chicks.
You can loose all your Layers if you don’t brood them well, please pay attention when I will be teaching you brooding.
You may not Excel in poultry if you don’t take them to be your children, you don’t eat until they are satisfied, you don’t sleep until they have slept, if you blink an eye it may be disastrous.
SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT POULTRY FARMING BUSINESS WE NEED TO KNOW
Be sure there are enough feeders, drinkers and space to ensure proper growth.
Avoid water spillage on the litter, so place water drinker on raised flat planks, then keep big stone or beer bottle on to to avoid the birds climbing on top of the water drinker
Water for chicken must be fresh, cool and clean, note that water intake will increase as temperature increases
For every grain of feed eaten by chicken it will need 2 – 3 mls of water supply, clean, fresh and cool water for the chickens
If you don’t supply enough water, it will affect the growth rate of the birds
Adjust the feed height weekly to the level of the back of the birds.
If you starve birds water for about three days they will go into molting resulting in drop of production.
Do not waiste feed, your profit is directly proportional to the cost of feed consumed, therefore do not fill the feeder to the full because it may lead to wastage, the best is to fill the feeder to one third full.
WHY SOME POULTRY BUSINESS CLOSE DOWN
1. Inability to choose your market
who do you intend to sell to, it will determine the age at which you will sell.
2. Inability to choose the best market for your bird type
while some may Excel in Turkey, another may be Layers, what we see today is that everyone is into broilers.
3. Lack of business plan
Write business plan before you start off, many start only to discover they don’t have enough money to rear to the end, I was a victim of this in 2013
4. Wrong managers
the expert will end up using your farm to set up his own, many are making this mistake even till today.
5. Chosen the wrong bird
People will stop patronising you when they discover your chickens are always bad.
6. Unsuitable brooding room
Effective brooding is non negotiable if you must succeed in poultry business
7. Wrong feed during brooding
this is not professional at all, brood your chickens with quality super starter booster feeds for quality results.
8. Starting in a wrong way
Life obeys principle of seedtime and harvest, if you steal from mentors to start be rest assured that business will die off
9. Using wrong organics
there are many fake information on organic poultry flying around, many are non-tested and people who practice ends up losing all their birds
POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS
There are two housing systems in poultry farming business, they are:
a) cage farming system
b) deep litter farming system
Cage farming system
This is a practice in which pigs, hens, rabbits, ducks and quail are imprisoned in factory farm cages.
Poultry Battery cages
There are housing systems which are mostly used for chicken rearing and suitable for several methods of animal production
Deep litter is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. …
The deep litter cultivation is a modern ecological breeding technique based on decomposing feces by microbiological methods, a post processing method for poultry Manure.
Advantages of cage system
includes that it helps in rearing greater number of birds per space, it helps in proper record keeping, helps the farmer to identify poor birds, controls bird cannibalism and egg mating, it helps to to produce Clean eggs, easy control of diseases, easy control of feed wastage
Advantages of deep litter poultry Farming
it’s economical, hygienic, comfortable and safe to breed birds, easy control of diseases, increase efficiency in production, can use saw dust, grandnut etc as litters
HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
The first basic step in creating a good environment for the birds is to provide them with shade created like a house.
The best house for the birds is the open sided constructed with solid base wall of about 1 – 3 concrete block coaches of 6 inches while the other side is open-sided covered with 1/4 inch wire mesh with controllable curtains of 4.5m high.
The house should be made of concrete floor, the pen should be on a flat land not exposing to erosion and wind, a foot deep containing disinfectant should be constructed for visitors.
During rainy season, the house is covered with black water proof nylon to prevent rain from entering the building and to help heat up the farm.
Poultry houses are usually built with the length facing North and South while the breath faces east and west, the essence of this arrangement is to reduce the heat load in the house since it’s only the narrow end or breath of the house that will be facing sunrise and sunset.
POULTRY FARM SANITATION
(a) Always keep the doors of the poultry farm locked
(b) To avoid contamination and for other security
reasons, do not allow visitors or strangers to enter the
(c) Completely clean the house and remove all litter,
feathers, dust, and manure, among others before
bringing in new set of birds.
(d) Move all cleaning debris (broken pieces of rubbish) as
far from the poultry house as possible.
(e) Ensure that all windows and doors are screened with
wire nets to prevent the entrance of wild birds.
(f) Constantly clean the feed rooms, storage areas
around the poultry house.
(g) Dispose dead chickens immediately either by burning
(h) Do not exchange equipment with any other from the premises
(i) Follow the recommended vaccinations carefully,
report any strange signs to your veterinary doctor.
(j) Remove cobwebs from the house and cages
(k) Use of disinfectant and insects repellent must be regular to reduce diseases and pest
TIPS ON LITTER MANAGEMENT
Litters are materials used in covering the floor of a brooder
house, it usually consists of wood shavings and maize cobs.
Litters must be managed to prevent unhealthy environment
and disease condition. To manage your litter, kindly do the
(a) Dry every fresh wood shavings before applying it
(b) Avoid introducing wet or dry damp shavings as litter
in the brooders house
(c) Finally, do not use saw dust, as it could cause
respiratory problems for the chickens.
CARE OF THE YOUNG CHICKS
Young chicks are usually kept in the incubator without
feeding for 24hrs after hatching, after this they usually sold
as a day old chicks, they are kept in a small closed room
known as brooding house, this place has artificial heaters
that helps to keep the place warm, they can be there
between 7 – 14 days depending on the temperature of the
Effective brooding of chickens is dependent on the
- Relative humidity
- Air composition