Are you looking for a lucrative business to engage in? so many have crossed your mind but you are still biased about your option, well, I think fish farming is the best of all options. It is all about the rearing of fishes for commercial purpose and increases productivity.
We all know of the high demand for fish in our localities and cities, due to its nutritional value. It is a food for both young and old, rich and poor, (no segregation). so getting into fish farming will eat you some cool cash. How do you get about it, read through and assimilate?
Nature Of Fishes
Fish is an aquatic animal, in Chordata phylum, vertebrate in subphylum and has close to 34,300 species. It is made up of an inner skeleton, as some have bony skeleton while others have rubbery cartilage.
Fish is identified with the presence of gills which helps in respiration, tails/ fins which help in swimming and harsh scale throughout its body.
As an aquatic animal, fish lives in water with different species adapting to different water conditions ranging from light water to brackish Waters. Fishes are found in oceans, Rivers, lakes, swamps etc.
They are very sensitive animal and can communicate so fast with the aid of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication is the transmission of acoustic signals from a single species to another.
Fish can be reared and some can also be kept by recreational fishers as pets. As fishes vary in different species so does it vary in shapes, colours and sizes? But in fish farming, there are unique species meant for it.
METHOD OF FISH FARMING
Fish farming can be carried out in the following method:
- Pond method
- Raceway method
- Plastic tank method
- Water re-circulatory method
This is the method of fish farming that involves the construction of a pond. Formerly, a pond is an area filled with water which is smaller in size than a lake. This pond can be built naturally or artificially depending on the area.
For artificial filled water, the pond can be constructed having walls and ground made of concrete. Water inlet, as well as an outlet made for proper farming. It is the most common method of fish farming in Nigeria and serves good.
Raceway method is equally another method of fish farming. This is an artificial channel also known as flow-through.
Raceway system is built in a rectangular shape with walls and ground made of concrete having a water inlet and outlet. It is the earliest method of fish farming. Raceway system involves constant flow of water to regulate and maintain the quality of water needed for the fish to adapt and grow in.
PLASTIC TANK METHOD
The plastic tank is another artificial method of fish farming. It is made of the plastic tank as well can be a plastic trampoline.
Note that the plastic tank for fish farming is different from a storage water tank. It has a wide opening with non-toxic paint applied to them. It needs to undergo plumbing that is constructing the water outlet after purchasing.
It is one of the cheapest and common methods of fish farming. This method is highly beneficial to people living as tenants. It is the simplest method of fish farming in Nigeria.
WATER RECIRCULATING METHOD
Water re-circulatory method is a very good method of fish farming. In this method, the constant changing of water is not actually required but the use of biofiltration to keep the environmental condition of the fish healthy.
It is a complete closed circuit, where the waste product is filtered out and converted into harmless. This is one of the most advantageous methods for places with a limited water source. Diseases are fully controlled and farming system is always easy to handle (that is harvesting, feeding etc) in this method.
How to start fish farming in Nigeria
- Gather quality and vast education on fish farming
- Secure a land on a good location
- Make available a good source of water
- Decide on the best specie of fish to farm
- Choose & construct a convenient and appropriate fish housing
- Make a proper plan on the sources of fish feed
- Get a capital
- Get a good and healthy juvenile
GATHER QUALITY AND VAST EDUCATION ON FISH FARMING
This is the first step to take and the ultimate for successful fish farming. This step can be achieved by reading about the fish farming on the blog (subscribing to your best channel for updates), textbooks, YouTube videos and so on.
By so doing, you will learn the water condition of all the fishes and their adaptation ranging from, ones that survive on clean water and brackish water etc. With this step, you will be a well-equipped in mind and spirit for the upcoming business.
SECURE A LAND ON A GOOD LOCATION
This is another step to achieve while sitting on a good location is more like advice with the climatic condition and other factors of the environment checked makes a great step to fish farming.
Depending on the scale at which you want to start the fish farm, in either small or large scale. For a small scale, any position in your house can serve with the aid of a plastic tank. But for large-scale farming, getting a piece of land is the most convenient. Enable to secure the land from an intruder.
MAKE AVAILABLE A GOOD SOURCE OF WATER
Like you already know fish as an aquatic animal, it can’t survive without water. The good and reliable water source should be provided for its smooth running. This can be achieved either through spring, lakes, river, or borehole Waters etc.
Note to avoid treated water that can be harmful to fishes and also dirty water.
DECIDE ON THE BEST SPECIES OF FISH TO FARM
There are several species of fishes in the River, ocean, seas, streams etc. It is left for you to decide on the best specie to farm depending on the demand of the area.
Some of the species of high demand include catfish, tilapia, mackerel etc. When you start with a better specie be rest assured for better sells.
CHOOSE & CONSTRUCT A CONVENIENT AND APPROPRIATE FISH HOUSING
Dependent on the method of fish farming you want to adopt, ranging from the pond, raceway, plastic tank and water circulatory method.
With a species of fish in mind, housing best with the convenient method should be constructed. This keeps them free from predators which threat the healthy living of the fish. It is another great step to consider for successful fish farming.
MAKE A PROPER PLAN ON THE SOURCE OF FEEDS
There are different available feeds for fish farming. when making plans note that both the quality and quantity is required.
It feeds ranges from natural feeds (such as plankton, worms, insects, snails, fish etc), supplementary feed (such as kitchen waste, agricultural by-products etc) and complete feed ( artificially made feed especially made with proper and adequate nutrients). This will help achieve a quality fish.
You can’t do anything without capital. It is the most ultimate of any business and fish farming is not counted out. With enough capital, fish farming will be an easy task and healthy fish will be assured. This capital helps to reach out its feeds, manage water source, getting medications in the case of any disease penetration and so on.
GET A GOOD AND HEALTHY JUVENILE
While getting your fishes, always ensure you get a healthy and already picked one. This is to enable disease-free fish.
Ensure to get the little fishes called juveniles which is the best for an easy and stress-free start.
ADVANTAGES OF FISH FARMING
- It creates employment
- It prevents some fish species extinction
- It yields a good income
- It is easy to maintain
- Fishes are a great source of protein & mineral
DISADVANTAGES OF FISH FARMING
- It pollutes our environment
- It is expensive to start up
- They are prone to more disease
Fish farming is a great source of income and should be inculcated for a lower rate of unemployment in our society. With the above steps and methods of fish farming, you will ensure a good and successful fish farm. Excel