Monday, March 22, 2021

Animal Feed Production

  Eze Ogbonnaya Harris       Monday, March 22, 2021

 

Feed production is the process of producing animal Feed From Agricultural Products (raw). It is being formulated to meet specific animal nutritional requirements. Generally, Birds and Pisces requires more feeding than any other animals.

When we talk of Feed formulation for commercial purposes we ar talking of the process followed in arriving at volumes of those important ingredients and additives or supplements to mix in order to make compound feeds that meet the required and approved nutrient requirements of targeted animals and achieve production goals at an optimized cost.


Visitors also read: Starting a profitable Poultry business in Nigeria 

Poultry Feed production 

Poultry requires 38% components in their feed and their ratio differs in each different stages which includes; carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins.

  • Carbohydrates = Corn, Wheat, barley,etc.
  • Fats = Tallow, lard, vegetable oil, Soy oil and Sunflower oil which produce fatty acid for membrane integrity and hormone synthesis.
  • Protein= For amino acids (development of body tissues like muscles, nerves, cartilage, etc.) Soybean, Corn gluten and Canola.
  • Minerals = Grains (Calcium, Phosphorus, CI, Magnesium, Potassium (k) and (Na) Sodium).
  • Vitamins= Required in lower amount (A, B, C, D,E and K)

Pelleted Feed is the easiest and most popular way to feed.

Fishes Feed production 

A Fish Feed should be nutritionally balanced and a high energy source for better growth. Soy bean and Corn, vegetable oils, minerals and vitamins (Herbivorous fishes Feed). 30 – 50% fish meal and oil (Carnivorous)

Note: Particle size influences feed digestibility and the grain and milling process affects particle size. (Grain includes hardness and moist content).

Pigs Feed production 

For a healthy Pigs farming, the pigs needs a number of important  nutrients to meet their needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation, and other functions.

For example,  Swine needs the  six general classes offood/ nutrients: water, carbohydrates, fats, protein (amino acids), minerals, and vitamins in their ight proportion for better growth. 

Energy, although not a specific nutrient, is a very essential  nutritional component and is primarily derived from the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats.

Processes of Producing Animal Feeds

•Grinding

•Mixing

•Milling

•Rolling and 

•Pelleting


Some of  the Ingredients needed for Feed Production includes:

Ingredients needed for feed production 

1. Premix

It is a must to add a  premix  to poultry diets or feeds in order to get the sufficient level of vitamins and minerals and prevent birds from becoming malnourished.  

We can not say that an animal feed is completely mixed in the absence of supplemented vitamins and minerals. Especially the plant-based supplements which are rich in protein and energy, but don't contain the required amounts of trace elements or certain vitamins. Furheremore, the presence of different nutrients in feedstuffs vary considerably.

2. Wheat Offal

Wheat offal also known as bran, which is a by-product of the dry milling of normal wheat into flour, is one of the main agro-industrial by-products used in animal feeding. Bran contains the outer layers (cuticle, pericarp and seedcoat) combined with small amounts of the starchy endosperm of the wheat kernel. 

Other wheat processing companies that uses wheat offal removal step may also produce wheat bran as a separate by-product: pasta and semolina production from durum wheat starch production and ethanol production.

Wheat bran might also be used as good replacements for guinea corn and maize which are more expensive and less nutritious in broiler feed production.

Common names 

Wheat bran, fine wheat bran, coarse wheat bran, coarse wheat feed

3. Rice Bran

Rice bran is the most important rice by-product. The bran fraction contains 14-18% oil. Rice bran which has not gone through defatting is a good binder in mixed feeds.rice bran that has been Defatted  can be used at higher levels than ordinary rice bran. Rice bran is often mixed with rice hulls, as it should have a crude fibre content of 10-15%.

Rice bran has a shorter shelf-life when it is compared to refined white rice due to increases in free fatty lipids during storage. 

When the recommended method of packaging and storing white rive is followed, it can be stored for a number of decades and not the one year as usual. 

More Ingredients used in poultry, fish, pigs grasscutters feed production 

  • Groundnut Cake
  • Bone meal
  • Oyster shell
  • Maize Flour
  • Fish Meal
  • Soya bean
  • Broken Rice
  • Salt
  • Lime stone


Note: All the materials are around your neighborhood market


Stage by Stage Poultry Feed Production


Poultry Organic Feed production 

Ingredients

  • Maggot
  • Earthworm

Vegetables

  • Onions
  • Garlic and Ginger

Booster Level

  • Scent Leaf
  • Awolowo
  • Bitterleaf
  • Blood leaf (Spinach)


Poultry Artificial Feed formulation. 

Ingredients

Yellow Maize……..24kg

Fish Meal……………15kg

Wheat ……………….35kg

Cotton seed cake…15kg

Soy oil/Vegetable oil….2kg

Growth Hormone……..0.2kg

Calcium Phosphate……1kg

Calcium Bicarbonate….3kg

Amino Acid…………….0.5kg


Step by step Fish Feed production 

Fish Organic Feed production 

Ingredients

  • Earthworm
  • Maggot
  • Palm Kernel Fruit or Nut


Booster

  • Algae (Green)


Fish Artificial feed formulas  (formulation) 

Soya bean or Soy meal……53kg

Groundnut Cake…………….21kg

Fish Meal………………………..10kg

Oyster Shell……………………1.0kg

Bone meal………………………2kg

Maize ……………………………..8.6kg

Wheat……………………………..2.8kg

Sunflower oil Or  Vegetable oil………………..2kg

Salt…………………………………….0.2kg


Organic Roaster For Birds

To achieve a 4kg Weigh Broiler in 6weeks

  1. Day 1-4.....Glucose+ Vine shield + Water (Glucose Solution) +Awolowo leaf
  2. Day 5 -9….Water + Vine Shield + Prestarter  + Garlic + Ginger +Booster + Onions+ Utazi  + Bitter leaf + Scent leaf + Awolowo leaf
  3. Day 10 – 16….Water + Vines Shield + Booster + Starter + Onions + Utazi + Bitter leaf + Scent Leaf              + Awolowo
  4. Day 16 – 21…..Water +  Vine shield + Booster + Starter + Onions + Garlic + Ginger  + Awolowo leaf + Bitter Leaf + Barbargray
  5. Day 22 -29…… Water + Vine shield + Booster + Grower + Garlic + Ginger + Maggot + Charcoal + Scent Leaf
  6. Day 30 – 37 ……Water + Vine shield + Booster + Grower + Maggot + Charcoal +Scent Leaf + Awolowo  leaf
  7. Day 38 – 44…..Water + Vine shield + Booster + Grower + Maggot  + Charcoal + Scent leaf + Awolowo leaf + Bitterleaf


Note :  For mature birds, garlic and finger are expected to be used for a month, then, you stop applying due to its effect on their growth. Birds are expected to consume mostly on fatty feed and mostly food of high carbohydrate. Maggot and Earthworm are essential for the growth of the birds if available.


Maggot has about 60 -70 percent of the nutrient required by birds and fishes.


Use Of Charcoal


Charcoals are mostly introduced in the brooding of the chicks and for their health benefits. Either being introduced to their water or grinded or mixed to their feed. 

In brooding, it is used to enhance the temperature of the environment and their body temperature. Birds have a temperature of about 105°F - 107°F. Temperature and feeding mechanism are Paramount to the growth of birds.

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